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Gasoline-like hydrocarbons by catalytic cracking of soap phase residue of neutralization process of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

Received 29 June 2016
Revised 26 October 2016 Accepted 10 November 2016 Available online 9 December 2016
Catalytic cracking
Soap phase residue Neutralization of palm oil Distillation, Gasoline
1. Introduction
During the refining (chemical and physical) process of veg- etable oils, a complex mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and minor fat-soluble compounds (carotenes, tocopherols, squa- lene, sterols, fatty alcohols, waxes, etc.), the minor compounds are removed [1–4]. The removal of fat-soluble compounds from veg- etable oils to produce refined edible oils is necessary, as most of these compounds may be detrimental to the flavor, oxidative sta- bility, and physical appearance of refined oil [1–4]. Thus, signifi- cant amounts of salts of carboxylic acids (soap) [5–9], fatty acid deodorizer distillates [10–12], and acid process water are gener- ated as by-products of vegetable oils refining process [6,13]. Among
∗ Corresponding author at: Fax: 0055-9132017291.
E-mail addresses:, (N.T. Machado).
In this work, the soap phase residue of neutralization process of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) submit- ted to catalytic cracking to produce gasoline-like hydrocarbons fuels. The cracking reaction carried out in a stirred tank reactor of 143 L, operating in batch mode at 440 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using 15% (wt.) Na2CO3 as catalyst. The organic liquid products (OLP) yield 71.34% (wt.) with an acid value of 1.07mg KOH/g and kinematic viscosity of 1.90mm2s−1, matching sulfur content, copper strip corrosion, flash point, viscosity and density of ANP (Brazilian Petroleum Agency) N° 65 for diesel S10. The distillation of OLP carried out in laboratory scale according to the boiling temperature range of fossil fuels, yielding 6.69% (wt.) gasoline, 12.77% (wt.) kerosene, 15.52% (wt.) light diesel, and 38.02% heavy diesel-like hydro- carbons fuels, showing that Na2CO3 was more selective to convert salts of carboxylic acids into diesel-like hydrocarbons fuels. The GC–MS analysis showed that OLP is composed by 91.59% (wt.) hydrocarbons and 8.41% (wt.) oxygenates. The gasoline-like hydrocarbons fraction composed by 100% hydrocarbons with an acid value of 1.69mg KOH/g and kinematic viscosity of 0.83 mm2s−1, matches many physicochemical parameters of ANP N° 40 for gasoline A, proving the technical feasibility of catalytic cracking process.


M.C. Santosa, R.M. Lourenço, D.H. de Abreua, A.M. Pereiraa, D.A.R. de Castroa,
M.S. Pereiraa, H.S. Almeidaa, A.A. Mâncioa, D.E.L. Lhamasa, S.A.P. da Motab, J.A. da Silva Souza, S.D. Júnior, M.E. Araújoa, L.E.P. Borges, N.T. Machado


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